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National Income : Definition, Estimation and Methods of Calculation

National Income of a country is the measurement of net value of production of goods and services in a financial year of the country. National Income also includes Net Factor Income From Abroad. That means National Income is the measurement of productive power of a country.

Measurement of National Income :-
The National Income of a country is measured by GDP, GNP, GND, NNI, NNP and per capita income. The standard methods of calculation of National Income are GNP and per Capita Income, while in India GDP is used as the standard method for calculating National Income. Since all these methods do not include poverty, literacy, public health, equality and other factors of standard living, hence these are not considered as good methods to calculation of economic development.
Calculation Methods of National Income :-

1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) :- Gross Domestic Product is the money value of the production of goods and services of a country during a financial year. GDP is not considered as a good measure of National Income because it does not include the income of non residents of the country in foreign countries and it includes the income earned by foreign nationals living in the country. [GDP = C + I + G + (X-M)] {Where, C = Total Consumption Expenditure, I = Total Investment Expenditure, G = Total Government Expenditure, X = Export, M = Import}
2. Net Domestic Product (NDP) :-  It is the value of the GDP affter deuction of the money value of the depreciation of machinery and fixed assets of production. [GNP = GDP- Depreciation]
3. Gross National Product (GNP) :- It is the net value of goods and services of a country produced by residents in a country. [GNP = GDP + Net Factor Income From Abroad]
4. Net National Product (NNP) :- It is the value of GNP after deducting depreciation of machineries and fixed assets from it. [NNP = GNP - Depreciation]
5. National Income (NI) :- In India net national income is calculated by deducting Indirect Taxes and adding subsidies into NNP. [NI = NNP - Indirect Taxes + Subsidies.

Logical Reasoning and Syllogisms to find correct Conclusions

There​ word 'Logic' is derived from the Greek term 'logos' meaning both 'thought' and 'the word expressing thought'. That means logic is the science of expressing thoughts in the form of language/statements.

Statements:-
• Statements are the propositions about something or someone(Subject).
There are 3 parts of any statement in Syllogism :-
1. Subject :- This is the one about which something is said.
2. Predicate :- This is the quality or properties of Subject.
3. Copula :- This is the connective word of Subject and Predicate.
Example:-
All fans are chairs.
{1. All fans = Subject(S), 2. Chairs = Predicate(P), 3. are = Copula}

Classification of Statements:-

Statements are further classified in 4 parts:-
1. Universal Affirmative Statement{All(S) are (P)} :- The statement in which subject is distributed but predicate is not distributed.       Example:- All roses are marigolds.
2. Universal Negative Statement{No(S) are (P)} :- The statement in which both subject and predicate are distributed is known as Universal Negative Statement.         Example:- No roses are marigolds.
3. Particular Affirmative Statement{Some(S)are (P)} :- In this type of statement non of the subject or predicate is distributed. Example:- Some roses are roses.
4. Particular Negative Statement {Some(S) are not (P)} :- These statements in which only predicate is distributed but subject is not.   Example:- Some roses are not marigolds.
SYLLOGISM :-
• Syllogism is a topic in which we have to derive conclusions from two statements called as

 Aristotle
premises.
• Syllogism was introduced by a famous philosopher Aristotle.

Terms :-
1. Major Term :- This is the Predicate of the conclusion.
2. Middle Term :- This is the word common in both the premises.
3. Minor Term :- This the subject of conclusion.
Major and Minor Premise :-
Of the two premises, the major premise is that in which the middle term is the subject and the minor premise is that in which the middle term is the predicate.

Human Blood : Components and their Functions

The red fluid flowing in our body is known as blood. This red fluid is responsible for transportation  of Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and hormones to every body parts and vice versa. It also plays a major role in messenger system of human body  and brain due to dissolved ions in the blood. Blood also regulate the average body temperature of human beings.
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Some Facts on Blood
• The quantity of blood in human body is around 6-7%.
• The pH of blood is around 7.4.
• Blood can be divided in two parts :- (A) Plasma. (B) Blood Corpuscles
(A). Plasma :-
1. Plasma is about 60% of the total blood and around 90% of it is water.
2. Plasma contains protein(7%), salts(1%) and glucose(0.1%).
3. Plasma transports hormonal chemicals, digested food and excretory products from one part to another part of our body.
4. The Fibrinogen and Prothrombin are essential chemicals to clot the blood are actually present in plasma. Without this Fibrinogen and other proteins the plasma is known as serum.
(B). Blood Corpuscles :-
 Blood Corpuscles

There are three parts of Blood Corpuscles :-
1. Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)
2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)
3. Blood
1. Red Blood Corpuscles
• Red Blood Corpuscles is red due to presence of iron(Fe) based compound called Haemoglobin in Haeme is iron complex while globin is a protein.
• RBC is formed in bone marrow of human's body and its life span is around 20 days to 120 days.
• One of the most important fact about plasma is it lacks nucleus in it. There are two  exceptions of this is Camel and Lama, whose RBCs has nucleus into it.
• The main function of RBC is to carry the oxygen from the lung to all cells of the body and brings carbon dioxide from all body parts  to lung, because hemoglobin has exceptional tendency to combine with oxygen and carbon dioxide.
• Hemocytometer is used to measure the RBC count of the blood.
• The destruction of RBC happens in lever and spleen and life span of RBC is from 20 days to 120 days.
2. White Blood Corpuscles (WBC) :-
• WBC has nucleus present in it and its life span is around 2-4 days.
• One of the main function of White Blood Corpuscles in our body is to protect it from external agents which cause diseases.
• WBC is formed in Bone marrow, live, lymph nodes and spleen.
• The ratio of RBC to WBC is 600 : 1.
3. Blood Platelets :-
• It's formation also takes place in bone marrow with life span of 3 - 5 days and finally dies in the spleen.
• One of the primary and most important function of blood platelets are in clotting of blood.
• Blood platelets are only found in the body of mammals.
Clotting of Blood :-
Blood clotting is the process of coagulation of blood after wounds and cuts through complex chemical reactions which happens in three steps given below :-
1. Thromboplastin + Prothrombin + Calcium = Thrombin.
2. Thrombin + Fibrinogen = Fibrin.
3. Fibrin + Blood Corpuscles = Clot.

SBI PO 2017 : Eligibility, Application, Call Letters and Result

SBI has notified the recruitment of Probationary officers in State Bank of India (SBI) and its' associate banks. The preliminary exam will set to be organised on 29th & 30th Apr and 6th & 7th May 2017. State Bank of India is the only Indian bank to found it's place in Fortune 500 banks in the world. It is the largest bank of India followed by Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank. Being a officer in SBI is itself a pride and honor. It is one of the most toughest exams of India. The recruitment process is done in three stages.  Students declared qualified get 2 years of rigorous probation period to train and make them a real banker who is ready to strong and balanced decision for the bank decision.

(A) Eligibility :-
1. Essential Academic Qualifications: (AS ON 01.07.2017) :-Graduation in any discipline from a recognised University or any equivalent qualification recognized as such by the Central Government. Students who are in the Final year/Semester of their Graduation may also apply provisionally subject to the condition that, if called for interview, they will have to produce proof of having passed the graduation examination on or before 01.07.2017. Candidates having integrated dual degree (IDD) certificate should ensure that the date of passing the (IDD) is on or before 01.07.2017. Candidates possessing qualification of Chartered Accountant may also apply.
2. Age(As on 01.04.2017) :- Must be at least 21 years and not more than 30 years of age as on 01.04.2017, that means candidates must have been born not earlier than 02.04.1987 and not later than 01.04.1996 (both days inclusive). Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Cast will get age relaxation of 5 years while (OBC) will get 3 years of age relaxation. For the age relaxation of Physically handicapped please download detailed notification given at the end of this article.
 Vacancies in SBI PO Exam 2017
(B) Apply :-
• You can apply for SBI PO 2017 Exam only between 07-02-2017 to 06-03-2017 through online mode only.
• To apply please go to this link Apply Online.
(C) Call letters :-
1. You can download call letters for the SBI PO 2017 Preliminary Examination will be available from 15-04-2017 onwards.
2. Call letters for Main examination will be available from 22-05-2017 onwards as per scheduled.
3. Call letters for GD and Interview will be available from 26th June 2017 onwards.
(D) Results :-
1. Results of online SBI PO 2017 Preliminary exam will be declared on 17-05-2017.
2. Results of online SBI PO 2017 Main Examination will be declared on 19th June 2017.
3. Final Results of online SBI PO 2017 Examination will be declared on 5th Aug 2017.
(E) Schedule of Examination :-
 Schedule of  SBI  PO Exam 2017

You can ask any type of queries on SBI PO 2017 Examination by commenting below.

Tiger Reserves in India : A State Wise List

 Tiger Reserves in Indi
Tiger reserves are the place where tigers are being preserved and a natural  habitat is being provided to them to maintain the balance of ecosystem Tiger reserves are also responsible to maintain and increase the number of tigers in India under the Project Tiger launched by the Govt. of India under prime supervision of National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). India has largest number of  tigers in the world, Approximately 70% tigers  of the world live in India. That also reflects in the numbers of tiger reserves in the country, there are more than 50 tiger reserves in India. We have listed all important tiger  reserves in India state-wise list  with establishment  year/period and size of them.

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States Tiger Reserves Established Area(sq.KM)
Andhra Pradesh Nagarjunsagar Srisailam 1382-1383 4896
Arunachal Pradesh Namdapha 1982-1983 2052
Arunachal Pradesh Pakhui/Pakke 1999-2000 1199
Assam Manas 1973-1974 3150
Assam Nameri 1999-2000 344
Assam Kaziranga 2006 1174
Bihar Valmiki 1989-90 899
Chhatisgarh Indravati 1982-83 2800
Chhattisgarh Achanakamar 2009 557.5
Chhattisgarh Udanti Sitanadi 2008-09 1842
Jharkhand Palamu 1973-74 1130
Karnataka Bandipur 1973-1974 1450
Karnataka Bhadra 1998-1999 1064
Karnataka Nagarhole 1999-2000 1205
Karnataka Dandeli Anshi 2007 1098
Karnataka Biligiri Ranganath Temple 2011-2012 575
Keral Periyar 1973-1974 925
Keral Parambikulam 2008-2009 644
Madhya Pardesh Pench 1992-1994 741
Maharashtra Meight 1973-1974 2769
Maharashtra Pench 1992-1993 741
Maharashtra Tdoba-Andheri 1993-1999 1727
Naharashtra Sahyadri 2009-2010 1165
Maharashtra Nawegaone 1999-2000 1205
Mahrashtra Bor 2014 138
Mizoram Dampa 1994-1995 988
Odisha Simlipal 1973-1974 2750
Odisha Satkosia 2008-2009 964
Rajasthan Ranthambore 1973-1974 1411
Rajasthan Sariska 1978-1979 1213
Rajasthan Mukundara Hills 2013 760
Tamilnadu Mudumalai 2007 689
Tamilnadu Sathyamangalam 2013 1408
Tamilnadu Anamalai 2007 1480
Telangana Kawal 2012-2013 2019
Uttar Pradesh Dudhwa 1987-1988 2201
Uttar Pradesh Amargarh 2012 80.60
Uttar Pradesh Pilibhit 2014-2015 730
Uttarakhand Corbett 1973-1974 1284
Uttarakhand Rajaji 2014-2015 1150
West Bengal Sunderbans 1973-1974 2585

Very Important Vocabulary Words For SSC, Railway and Banking Part 2

These vocabulary words are from the previous 10 years papers' of Combined Graduate Level Examination (CGLE). Since you know that SSC repeats its questions, these words are very important for upcoming SSC exams. It is also equally important for Banking and Railway exams.

1. Anarchy:-  A state where no law & order exists.

2. Accomplice:-  A person who joins with another in carrying out some plan(Especially an unethical or, illegal plan).

3. Excursion:-  A Journey taken for pleasure.

4. Quintessence:-  The purest and most concentrated essence of something.(Synonym:- Essential)

5. Evince:-  Give expression to (Hint) indirectly.

6. Ambivalence:-  The state of having simultaneous conflicting reactions, beliefs/felling. (Synonym:- Ambiguous)

7. Detestable:-  Offensive to the mind.

8. Despicable:-  Unworthy, worthless.

9. Laudable:- Worthy of high praise.

10. Diligent:-  Quietly & steadily continuing a task despite any difficulties.

11. Imprudent :-  Not wise.

12. Improvident:-  Not providing for the future.

13. Veteran:-  One who has long experience of doing something.

14. Novice:-  Someone new to a field or activity.

15. Placid:- Free from disturbance by heavy waves, Not easily irritated.

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16. Vacillation:-  Hesitation , indecision in speech or action, changing location by moving back and forth.

17. Steadfastness:-  Loyalty in the face of trouble and difficulties.

18. Inoculation:-  Taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease.

19. Remorse:-  A feeling of deep regret.

20. Effeminacy:-  The trait of being effeminate/derogatory of a man, softness, unwontedness.
21. Obscure:-  Unknown, difficult to understand.

22. Sublime:-  Of very high quality and causing great admiration, Extreme.

23. Lackadaisical:-  Not showing enough care or enthusiasm.

24. Insolent:-  Extremely rude and showing lack of respect.

25. Slither:-  To move somewhere in a smooth, controlled way and often close to the ground.(slide, glide)

26. Impious:-  Showing a lack of respect for god or religion.(Synonym:- Irreverent)

27. Scorn:-  Condemn, to feel or show that you think somebody/something is stupid and you do not respect them, dismiss.

28. Apposite:-  Very appropriate for a particular situation or in relation to something.

29. Sanguine:-  Optimistic, cheerful and confident.

30. Peculiarity:-  Unusual characteristics.

Avinash Mohan Deo

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